Nanoemulsions as prospective drug delivery systems
Keywords:nanoemulsion, drug delivery, method of preparation, bioavailability
Nanoemulsions are promising for pharmaceutical industry due to a high bioavailability and increased shelf life of the pharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsions are transparent, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water, surfactant and co-surfactant. They are emulsions with the average droplet size ranging from 5 nm to 100 nm. Studies have shown that the size of the droplets is conditioned by the surfactant nature. The particles can exist as oil-in-water and water-in-oil forms where the core of the particle is either oil or water, respectively. Nanoemulsions have widespread applications in different fields such as pharmaceutics, food technology. Nanoemulsions are promising vehicle for increasing the aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The ability of nanoemulsions to dissolve large quantities of hydrophobics, along with their ability to protect the drugs from hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation make them ideal vehicles for the purpose of parenteral transport. The frequency and dosage of injections can be reduced throughout the drug therapy period as these emulsions guarantee the release of drugs in a sustained and controlled mode over long periods of time. Nanoemulsions have many advantages; for instance, enhance drug solubility, perfect thermodynamic stability, ease of manufacturing and permeation over conventional formulations that convert them to important drug delivery systems. Additionally, the lack of flocculation, sedimentation and creaming combined with a large surface area offer obvious advantages over emulsions of the larger particle size. Nanoemulsions containing pharmaceutically active agents can be used for production of pharmaceuticals, in which the nanoemulsion being mixed as an active component with a solid or liquid vehicle suitable for therapeutic use. The mixture can be in the medicinal form required. For example, it can be produced in such medicinal forms as ampoules, especially sterile solutions for injections and infusions or for oral application; eye drops and nose drops containing various excipients; nondosing and dosing aerosols containing propellants and stabilizers; hydrophilic and hydrophobic gels and ointments; o/w or w/o creams; lotions and pastes.
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