Modern aspects of development and treatment of rhinosinusitis
Keywords:chronic diseases, rhinosinusitis, therapy, drugs, homeopathic medicines
Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common chronic diseases. The studies in recent decades have shown that approximately 10% of rhinosinusitis have an endogenous nature. According to statistics, women more often suffer from rhinosinusitis than men, as well as people from the higher social strata of society. According to the literature, patients with rhinosinusitis are about one third of the total number of hospitalizations in ENT in-patient departments. Foci of inflammation in the paranasal sinuses can be a source of infectious sensitization of the respiratory tract and lungs, as well as the cause of severe intracranial complications. Therefore, the problem of the treatment of rhinosinusitis remains one of the most urgent and difficult in otorhinolaryngology. The empirical antibiotic therapy is the basic treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, as well as exacerbation of chronic rhinosinusitis. Drugs of the first choice in acute rhinosinusitis are amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate. Cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime axetil, are another way of treatment. Drugs, which are prescribed in the case of failure of the first course of antibiotics, are macrolides and fluoroquinolones of the III-IV generations such as levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. The use of traditional medicines has a positive therapeutic effect, but side effects of glucocorticoids and vasoconstrictors for topical application are associated with the risk of retinal vascular embolism and development blindness. Therefore, today the use of homeopathic complex drugs based on the components of the plant, animal and mineral origin is topical since they are as effective as allopathic drugs, do not exhibit undesirable side effects, drug intolerance and the effect of habituation, and do not cause allergic reactions.
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