The study of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market of laxatives


  • T. Ivko National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Ukraine
  • T. Germanyuk National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Ukraine
  • L. Bobritskaya National University of Pharmacy, Ukraine



constipation, laxatives, cost of DDD, ATC/DDD methodology


Constipation is one of the most common reasons for visiting a doctor in the world. In different countries every third or fourth adult has constipation continuously or periodically. Laxatives (L) are OTC-drugs. Therefore, to simplify the choice of a laxative by patients, pharmacists and doctors the study of the pharmaceutical market of L is of current interest.

Aim. To analyze the pharmaceutical market of laxatives in Ukraine.

Material and methods. Data of ATC/DDD-indexes of the WHO Center on methodology of statistical studies of drugs, doses for L recommended by the manufacturer, data on the average retail price of medicines in Ukraine in August 2016 were used in the study. The methods of research were frequency analysis and ATC/DDD-methodology.

Results and discussion. As the result of the structural analysis of the ATC classification and the presence of L at the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine it was found that the following drugs of group A06A were available to treat constipation: softeners (emollients), contact L, bulk-forming L, osmotically acting L, L in enemas and other drugs. The frequency analysis showed that there were 18 INN and 76 TN of L at the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine in 2016; among them domestic drugs were 55 %, and foreign – 45 %. Laxatives were supplied in Ukraine by such manufacturing countries as Portugal, Italy, Spain, Poland, France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Bulgaria, Latvia, Russian Federation and United Kingdom. The cost of the defined daily dose (DDD) for softeners (Vaseline oil) ranged from 2.94 to 3.39 UAH. The cost of DDD for contact L was from 0.60 to 3.90 UAH: for bisacodyl – from 0.60 to 2.82 UAH, for castor oil – 2.50-5.13 UAH, for senna glycosides – 0.84-3.20 UAH, for sodium picosulfate – 1.35-3.90 UAH, for combination of sodium picosulfate with a dry extract of senna leaves – 1.34-1.55 UAH. The cost of DDD of bulk-forming L ranged from 1.75 to 129.03 UAH: for L with Plantago ovata seeds ranged from 3.58 to 28.92 UAH, for laminaria – 1.75-1.97 UAH. The cost of DDD for osmotically acting L varied from 2.51 to 112.59 UAH: for magnesium sulfate – 2.15-2.51 UAH., and the cost for combination of inorganic salts – 112.59 UAH, for macrogol – 51.01 UAH, for lactulose – 3.75-18.74 UAH, for combinations with macrogol – 54,88-127,32 UAH. The cost of DDD for L in enemas varied from 33.39 to 129.03 UAH. The cost of DDD for other drugs for treatment of constipation was from 1.37 to 48.15 UAH: for glycerol – 3.44-36.49 UAH, for pruсalopride – 31.72-48.15 UAH, for others – 1.37-1.49 UAH.

Conclusions. In 2016 there were 18 INN and 76 TN of laxatives at the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine; drugs of domestic manufacture prevailed, the ratio between domestic and foreign drugs was 1.2 : 1. The cost of DDD for L in the context of the minimum and maximum cost of generics ranged from 0.60 to 129.03 UAH.


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Organization and Economy of Pharmacy