Development of the composition and technology of a soap with sapropel
Keywords:sapropel, cold method obtaining soap, antibacterial soap
Hygienic treatment of hands is an effective means of reducing the spread of transient microflora and is considered as one of the most important procedures for preventing the infection transmission by the contact-household way. Hygienic treatment of hands is necessary in public catering establishments, treatment and prevention institutions, for immunity compromised patients, in the period of seasonal diseases, etc. Most antibacterial soaps are based on synthetic surfactants using such synthetic antibacterial additives as triclosan, triclocarbanum, farnesol, benzalkonium chloride, pyroctonolamine. Therefore, development of soaps containing natural substances in their composition is relevant.
Aim. To develop a soap with sapropel, which would have the antibacterial effect and satisfactory sensory properties.
Materials and methods. To make the soap the liquid corn and castor oils, solid palm and coconut oils, as well as argan oil were selected as a superfatting agent. Oil saponification was carried out with sodium hydroxide solution. The quality of the samples obtained was assessed by the organoleptic and physicochemical parameters (the qualitative number (the mass of fatty acids calculated with reference to the nominal weight of a soap bar of 100 g), the mass fraction of free caustic alkali, the mass fraction of sodium products calculated with reference to Na2O, the temperature of fatty acid (titer) gelation, the mass fraction of sodium chloride).
Results and discussion. By the indicators of the saponification value of the selected components of the soap fatty base containing 43.8 % of palm oil and 25 % of coconut oil, 6.2 % of corn oil and 25 % of castor oil, and with the necessary consistency properties, soap ductility, high solubility and foaming in cold water the amount of alkali needed for making soap has been calculated. According to the results of determination of the soap consumer properties the concentration of argan oil has been chosen. As a result of studying the organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of the soap with 5 and 10 % of sapropel it has been found that the soap obtained by the cold method meets the standards for soap of the brand “Special” with disinfectants or therapeutic additives.
Conclusions. The soap composition containing 5 and 10 % of sapropel has been proposed. In the laboratory conditions the cold and hot methods for obtaining the soap with sapropel have been tested. It has been found that the samples obtained by the cold method meet the requirements of the normative documentation in contrast to the soap with the unsatisfactory organoleptic parameters obtained by the hot method.
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