Approaches of increasing oral bioavailability of class ii active pharmaceutical ingredients in accordance with the biopharmaceutical classification system


  • V. V. Mohylyuk University “Ukraine”, Ukraine
  • L. L. Davtian Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
  • D. O. Novykov University “Ukraine”, Ukraine
  • M. G. Katynska University “Ukraine”, Ukraine
  • Yu. V. Shmyrova AsahiKaseiEuropeGmbH, Germany
  • O. O. Dobrovolnyi PJSC SIC “Borshchahivskiy CPP”, Ukraine



biopharmaceutical classification system, oral bioavailability, pH-dependent solubility, supersaturated solution, dissolution kinetics, solid amorphous dispersion, lipid formulations, cyclodextrins


Aim. To compare existing approaches used for enhancing oral bioavailability (BA) of class II active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and categorize them in the order of most promising.
Materials and methods. The material of the article was literary data about approaches used for enhancing oral bioavailability of class II active pharmaceutical ingredients with a high permeability and poor solubility. Methods of information search, methods of comparison and generalization, systematic methods were used to carry out the research
Results and discussion. During last 20 years, the share of class II API in accordance with the biopharmaceutical classification system (i.e. with low solubility and high permeability) is continuously increasing at the world market and different stages of pharmaceutical product development. The approaches to improving oral BA of class II API which can be used to develop generic and modified generic drugs have been discussed in this article. These approaches were considered from the point of view of the principle of increasing the oral BA. It is concluded that promising approaches to increase oral BA should meet the following requirements: rapid achievement of oversaturated API concentration and its subsequent maintenance, keeping the whole API dose dissolved during transit through the intestines. Increased solubility and specific surface area are used as the main levers in all these approaches to improve oral bioavailability. At the same time, the ability to form supersaturated solutions and the retention of high concentrations during transit through the intestine differs depending on the approach.

Conclusions. The most promising approaches to increase oral bioavailability, contributing to the formation of supersaturated solutions and maintaining high concentrations during transit are included: solid amorphous dispersions of API; digestible formulations that form micelles/emulsions in the intestine; and digestible inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins.

Author Biographies

V. V. Mohylyuk, University “Ukraine”

Candidate of Pharmacy (Ph.D.), associate professor of the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biomedical Technologies

L. L. Davtian, Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

Doctor of Pharmacy (Dr. habil.), professor

D. O. Novykov, University “Ukraine”

Doctor of Pharmacy (Dr. habil.), professor, Faculty of Biomedical Technologies

M. G. Katynska, University “Ukraine”

Candidate of Pharmacy (Ph.D.), Faculty of Biomedical Technologies

Yu. V. Shmyrova, AsahiKaseiEuropeGmbH

Candidate of Pharmacy (Ph.D.)

O. O. Dobrovolnyi, PJSC SIC “Borshchahivskiy CPP”

Candidate of Pharmacy (Ph.D.)


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Technology of Medicines