Application of the chemometric method for processing the results of the X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of gunshot injuries caused by bullets of “Teren-12P” cartridges




traumatic elastic bullet, “Teren-12P” cartridge, gunshot damage to clothing fabrics, X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis, chemometric approach, principal component analysis


Determination of scientifically grounded criteria that allow us to objectively diagnose damage to clothing caused by firing elastic bullets of “Teren-12P” cartridges, which are in service with Ukrainian law enforcement agencies, is currently an urgent problem in forensic medicine and forensic science.
Aim. To determine the ability to use the chemometric method (principal component method) for processing the results of the experimental studies obtained using the X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis when determining the elemental composition of deposits in the area of damage to clothing fabrics obtained as a result of the hit of elastic balls of “Teren-12P” cartridges.
Materials and methods. Six common fabrics – fleece-backed faux leather stretch fabric (Pattern A), cotton knitted fabric (Pattern B), fabric-backed polyvinyl chloride (PVC), coated faux leather fabric (Pattern C) , raincoat fabric on a single-layer sintepon backing (sample “D”), raincoat fabric (sample “D”) and camouflage fabric “Greta”, colors “Forest” (sample “E”); ballistic plasticine “Beschussmasse, 6287156” (manufacturer – Carl Weible KG, Germany) were used. The following research methods were applied: X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis (RFSA) method.
Results and discussion. Using six common samples of clothing fabrics and ballistic plasticine the experimental shots from a Fort-500A pump-action gun were carried out by bullets of “Teren-12P” cartridges from distances of 0-15 m. Using RFSA the elemental composition of bullets and products of combustion of a powder charge was determined. These bullets were removed from the barrel of the gun after a shot, as well as target fabrics before shots and in areas of damage after shots. The analysis and processing of the qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements in the damaged areas was carried out using the chemometric approach – the method of principal components.
Conclusions. The main criteria for diagnosing clothing fabrics damage by a bullet from the “Teren-12P” cartridge using RFSA have been determined; they must be used when conducting the appropriate expert studies.

Author Biographies

V. V. Sapielkin, Kharkiv Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Education

Assistant, Department of Forensic Medicаl Examination

V. A. Rudniev, Hon. Prof. M. S. Bokarius Kharkiv Research Institute of Forensic Examinations

Candidate of Chemistry (Ph.D.), leading researcher of the Laboratory of Forensic Examination

V. G. Nikityiuk, Hon. Prof. M. S. Bokarius Kharkiv Research Institute of Forensic Examinations

head of the Section of Ballistic Research at the Laboratory of Forensic Examination,

O. V. Kolomiitsev, Hon. Prof. M. S. Bokarius Kharkiv Research Institute of Forensic Examinations

Candidate of Technical Sciences (Ph.D.) leading researcher of the Laboratory of Forensic Examination,


Sapielkin, V. V. (2016). Forensic Medical Peculiarities of Skin Damage Caused by a Large-Caliber Bullet Cartridge of Traumatic (Non-Lethal) Action «Teren-12P». Galician Medical Journal, 23 (2), 67–73.

Sukhyi, V. D. (1999). Sudovo-medychna kharakterystyka ushkodzhen, sprychynenykh 9 mm elastychnymy kuliamy. Extended abstract of candidates thesis. Kyiv, 20.

Kolos, O. P. (2010). Porivnialna sudovo-medychna kharakterystyka poshkodzhen riznykh vydiv tkanyn odiahu pry postrilakh z vykorystanniam patroniv «Osa», «PND-9P» ta «AL-9R», sporiadzhenykh elastychnymy kuliamy. Extended abstract of candidates thesis. Kyiv, 20.

Mykhailenko, O. V. (2010). Morfolohichni osoblyvosti ushkodzhen, zapodiianykh pry postrilakh patronamy «Teren 3FP» i «AE 9». Extended abstract of candidates thesis. Kyiv, 18.

Mishalov, V. D., Sukhyi, V. D., Voichenko, V. V., Kostenko Ye. Ya. (2016). Sudovo-medychna ekspertyza, 1, 41–45.

Kozachenko, I.M., Sukhin, O. P., Starychenko V. V. (2013). Proceeding from Pytannia sudovoi medytsyny ta ekspertnoi praktyky : XI zb. nauk. pr., prysviachena 90-richchiu Donetskoho oblasnoho biuro sudovo-medychnoi ekspertyzy ta 60-richchiu kafedry sudovoi medytsyny Donetskoho natsionalnoho medychnoho universytetu im. M. Horkoho. (pp. 150–152). Donetsk.

Sapielkin, V. V. (2014). Kriminalistika i sudebnaia ekspertiza. (Vol. 59). Kyiv, 475–484.

Afonin, V. P., Komiak, N. Y., Nikolaev, V. P., Plotnikov R. Y. (1991). Renthenofluorestsentnyi analiz. Novosybyrsk: Nauka, Syb. otdelenye, 173.

Polezhaev, Yu. M. (1991). Opticheskii atomno-еmissionnyі i renthenofluorestsentnyi metody spektralnoho analiza. Ekaterinburh: UPI, 92.

Fonseca, J. F., Cruz, M. M., Carvalho, M. L. (2014). Muzzle-to-target distance determination by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. X-Ray Spectrom, 43, 49–55.

Stefen, S., Otto, M., Niewoehner, L., Barth, M., Brozek-Mucha, Z., Biegstraaten, J., Horvath, R. (2007). Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with massspectrometric detection. 9th Rio Symposium on Atomic Spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 62 (9), 1028–1036.

Vanini, G. et al. (2015). Multivariate optimisation of ICP OES instrumental parameters for Pb/Ba/Sb measurement in gunshot residues. Microchemical Journal, 120, 58–63.

Rodionova, O. E., Pomerantsev A. L. (2006). Uspekhi khimii, 75 (4), 302–321.

Kumar, R., Sharma V. (2018). Chemometrics in Forensic Science. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 105, 191–201.

Krasnianchin, Ya. N., Panteleimonov, A. V., Kholin Yu. V. (2010). Metody i obekty khimicheskoho analiza 5 (3), 118–147.

Kharman, H. (1972). Sovremennyі faktornyі analiz. Moscow: Statistika, 487.





Synthesis and Analysis of Biologically Active Substances