The studies on the pharmaceutical development of dosage forms with silver and gold nanoparticles for use in dentistry and surgery
Keywords:silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, solution for wound cleansing, ointment, gel
In dentistry and surgery a special role belongs to medications of the local action that possess the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties and can stimulate the tissue regeneration.
Aim. To study the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver and gold nanoparticles in vitro, estimate their pharmacological activity in vivo and substantiate the composition and technology of 3 dosage forms based on them – a hydrophilic ointment, gel and solution for wound cleansing.
Materials and methods. Colloidal solutions of spherical silver and gold nanoparticles with the particle size of 30 nm and the concentration of 8.0 mg/ml and 77.2 μg/ml nanoparticles, respectively, were used to develop dosage forms. The antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver and gold nanoparticles was determined using the test strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Proteus vulgaris, as well as clinical isolates of pathogenic strains of microorganisms isolated from patients with purulent inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial area. The therapeutic efficacy of colloidal solutions of silver and gold nanoparticles in vivo was studied on the model of the jaw abscess of the experimental animals (Wistar rats). Technological methods were used to make dosage forms in accordance with the general rules for the manufacture of liquid and semi-solid medicines.
Results and discussion. It has been found that silver nanoparticles in the concentration of 0.16 mg/ml and their combination with gold nanoparticles in the concentration of 0.08 mg/ml for Ag and 1.93 μg/ml for Au exhibit a high level of the antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles as independent antimicrobial agents within the concentration range of 1.93-38.6 μg/ml exhibit a weak antimicrobial activity. The combination of silver nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles exhibit the marked anti-inflammatory action and contribute to decontamination and healing of the wound in the studies in vivo compared to the effect of silver nanoparticles only. The studies conducted made it possible to substantiate the choice of the concentration of colloidal solutions in dosage forms.
Conclusions. According to the results obtained the marked complex action (antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, regenerative) of the сombination of colloidal solutions of silver and gold nanoparticles in the treatment of purulent-inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial area has been determined. The composition and technology of 3 dosage forms based on them – an ointment, gel, solution for wound cleansing, which can be promising for application in dentistry and surgery, have been substantiated.
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